Varicose veins of the uterus: methods of medical and surgical treatment

The disease is difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms have many similarities to other gynecological pathologies. The following signs may indicate varicose veins of the uterus: discomfort during intercourse, severe pain in the lower abdomen that occurs periodically, cycle failure with prolonged and scanty bleeding. But during childbirth, these symptoms may not manifest themselves or indicate other diseases.

Definition

What is it: varicose veins of the uterus and how does it affect a woman's well-being and reproductive function? This is a pathological process characterized by stretching and expansion of blood vessels, the appearance of nodes, thinning of the venous walls and difficulties in the process of blood circulation. Varicose veins of the uterus are a relatively rare disease that has no specific symptoms and is difficult to detect.

Factors of origin

The causes of the development of the pathology of the veins of the uterus are mainly the following:

  • A history of abortion.
  • Sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy.
  • Hormonal imbalance (with a predominance of progesterone, which helps to reduce the tone of the pelvic vessels and uterus).
  • Insufficiency of vascular valves.
  • Untreated inflammatory processes.
  • Prolonged use of oral contraceptives.
  • hereditary predisposition.
  • Menstrual disturbances.
  • Chronic forms of other diseases that affect the state of the reproductive organs.

The main symptom of the disease is a dull, aching pain in the lower abdomen, sometimes radiating to the lower back or sacrum. There are no symptoms characteristic of uterine varicose veins, they occur with equal frequency in other gynecological diseases.

Groups at risk

Often varicose veins in the uterus occur or progress in a pregnant woman, since the development of the disease is affected by an increase in the level of progesterone, an increase in weight and venous pressure. Women who are carrying a baby should, if possible, lead an active lifestyle and regularly visit a doctor responsible for pregnancy.

Women at risk for uterine varicose veins include:

  • overweight;
  • with a large number of abortions in history;
  • lead a sedentary lifestyle;
  • multipare;
  • constantly using slimming underwear;
  • with sexual dysfunction;
  • with menstrual irregularities.

These women need to reconsider their habits, stick to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, move more, and monitor the condition of the gut.

Symptoms and signs

In the vast majority of cases, uterine varicose veins occur with latent or not pronounced symptoms. One of the most commonly reported ailments is discomfort during or after sex, as well as during physical exertion and during menstruation. Sometimes there is increased vaginal sensitivity, an increase in PMS symptoms and an increase in the interval between periods up to 1. 5-2 months.

These symptoms are characteristic of many pathologies of the pelvic organs. Therefore, it is quite difficult to diagnose varicose veins in the uterus. According to statistics, only 10% of patients with this pathology can be diagnosed at the very beginning of the disease. If misdiagnosed, the disease continues to progress and over time can lead to serious consequences.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of varicose veins is possible with the help of laboratory and instrumental research methods. Ultrasound of the uterus with a vaginal sensor will allow you to visualize the condition of the veins. CT and radiography in this case are not informative. Laboratory studies allow you to determine the composition of the blood.

Gynecological examination

If uterine varicose veins are suspected, the specialist should perform a vaginal examination and collect the patient's history. During the examination, the main diagnostic sign of the disease is a bluish tint of the cervix and vaginal mucosa, dilated veins and nodes.

ultrasound

Ultrasound is of great value in establishing the diagnosis. It can be done in two ways: transvaginal, i. e. by inserting a vaginal probe, and through the abdominal wall, i. e. transabdominal (pictured).

Transabdominal ultrasound for the diagnosis of uterine varicose veins

Pathology of the venous system can only be visualized by transvaginal ultrasound. After the discovery of the disease, the doctor should refer the woman to a doctor who specializes in venous pathologies (phlebologist). In turn, she will order venography for a thorough examination of the venous system, if the ultrasound is unable to provide an accurate picture of the condition. This procedure is contraindicated for pregnant women and people with iodine intolerance.

Analyses

A laboratory study helps to determine the discrepancy between the parameters of the coagulogram, which may be the cause of the pathology of the veins. If there are a lot of platelets in the blood, it has increased clotting and viscosity, which also does not allow it to circulate properly.

Varicose veins of the uterus during pregnancy

Varicose veins on the uterus during pregnancy in most cases develop in combination with damage to the veins in the legs. It is recommended that the treatment of the disease take place after the birth of the child, and during gestation symptomatic therapy is prescribed. Reception of venotonics, the use of compression underwear, complexes of physiotherapy exercises is shown.

Varicose veins of the uterus during pregnancy rarely occur, but they create some problems. Childbirth is often done by caesarean section. The entire gestational period, a woman should be under the medical supervision of a phlebologist.

Treatment

How to treat uterine varicose veins? Regardless of whether a woman is pregnant or not, the treatment of the disease is carried out by a gynecologist in tandem with a phlebologist. In the case of gestation, the question of the optimal method of childbirth is jointly decided by these specialists after the degree of vascular pathology is detected by ultrasound.

Medical therapy

Pharmacotherapy includes venotonics. Anticoagulants are also prescribed.

Women who are carrying a child are not prescribed drugs, as such a risk to the fetus is not justified. Pregnant women can be prescribed a contrast shower, physiotherapy, compression underwear and multivitamin complexes.

Surgical intervention

If the pathology is detected at an advanced stage and conservative treatment is ineffective, then resort to surgical intervention. There are several ways of operative correction, of which it is important to choose the least traumatic and effective:

  • Sclerosis of the blood vessels;
  • Removal of small affected vessels through notches;
  • Radio frequency coagulation;
  • Laser coagulation.

In severe cases, the uterus is removed with or without appendages. Such a serious surgical intervention requires the appointment of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which helps to avoid premature menopause.

Diet

Since the lower intestine is located near the uterus, it is important to monitor the composition and diet. Wheat bran improves peristalsis, and lactic acid products support the microflora.

In addition, the abundance of plant foods will have a good effect on the condition of the veins: celery, tomatoes, cucumbers, blueberries and cherries. Foods rich in iodine, such as algae, perfectly restore the venous wall, strengthening it and reducing its fragility. For the normal functioning of the organs, it is necessary to drink up to 1. 5-2 liters of water per day.

Sample menu for the day

Breakfast:

  • Salad of tomatoes and cucumbers;
  • Whole grain bread;
  • 1 egg.

Dinner:

  • Pottage;
  • Mashed potatoes;
  • Cutlet;
  • Sauerkraut with cranberries.

Dinner:

  • Kefir;
  • Whole grain bread;
  • A slice of cheese.

It is undesirable to use products based on white flour and sugar, confectionery (chocolate, sweets, cookies). In a small amount, you can eat honey, jam, marshmallows. Fatty foods are contraindicated because they cause blood clots. Food is best cooked steamed or hot.

Physiotherapy

A good result with varicose veins gives a contrast shower, it must be sent to the perineum. Physiotherapy exercises can also help, it consists in performing the exercises "bike", "birch", etc. In addition, it is recommended to perform breathing exercises and wear compression underwear.

Kegel exercises

These exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles when performed with some regularity, gradually increasing the complexity of the technique and increasing its duration. There are several types:

  • Compression and relaxation. Tighten your muscles, count to three, then relax. Count to three again and filter. Gradually increase the duration of the exercises to 20 seconds.
  • The alternation of the intensity of the exercises, the so-called "lift". 1st floor: it is easy to pinch the muscles and hold them for 3-5 seconds. 2 increases in intensity and duration of the plan and so on. On the 5th-7th floor, perform the exercises in the reverse order: from a pronounced load to a weak one.
  • Rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles.
  • Push is the tension of the muscles involved in the attempts. It is similar to attempts during the process of defecation or childbirth.

Complications of the disease

Why is the disease dangerous? If cervical varicose veins are not diagnosed in a timely manner, complications can arise that will lead to impaired reproductive function:

  • Damage to the veins.
  • Massive bleeding.
  • Inflammation of the uterus and appendages.
  • Inability to get pregnant and have a child.

The disease can progress and lead to the development of the following conditions:

  • Functional insufficiency of the genital organs.
  • Thrombosis, more often in pregnant women.
  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Anxiety and increased irritability.

The disease greatly complicates intimate life, up to the development of vaginismus and fear of sexual intercourse.

Prevention of uterine varicose veins

To prevent the pathology of the veins of the uterus, it is necessary to increase physical activity, eat well and engage in special gymnastics. With varicose veins, it is helpful to rest with the legs up to improve outflow.

It is not necessary to establish a diagnosis on the basis of the signs yourself, as even a doctor is not always able to tell if there is a pathology or if it is about symptoms of other gynecological diseases. Pain syndrome does not mean the presence of uterine varicose veins.

Gynecological visit scheduled for uterine varicose veins

Conclusion and Conclusion

The disease leads to a violation of the hormonal background in a woman and the failure of the menstrual cycle. With premature detection of varicose veins, complications can arise and infertility can develop. Women diagnosed with this disease require regular scheduled examination and monitoring of the course of the disease. This will prevent complications and prevent the progression of the pathology. If the disease has already become complicated, and conservative treatment does not give results, then it is necessary to consider the possibility of surgical intervention.